This may reflect the inherent thermal value of masonry’s mass wall. Trained, qualified inspectors are needed to implement effective inspection programs.
Masonry anchors and ties by the code – Masonry Wall Code
This ensures that they know enough about masonry construction to perform inspections effectively and efficiently. As a result, where masonry walls once had little or no reinforcement, they more often have increased quantities of steel and are partially or fully grouted.
Inspectors are trained to look for unobstructed grout spaces, how to check the placement of reinforcement, and how to test mortar and grout. As masonry construction continues to evolve, it’s increasingly important to know how to inspect the work. What are some of the reasons we need to inspect construction?
Space them around the opening perimeter at a maximum of three feet on center and within 12 inches of openings. No splices shall be allowed within 12 inches (305 mm) of an opening. The fire-box lining shall be encased with solid masonry to provide a total thickness at the back and sides of not less than 8 inches (203 mm), of which not less than 4 inches (102 mm) shall be of solid masonry or concrete.
The throat opening shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) in depth. When venting only one appliance, two flues are permitted to adjoin each other in the same chimney with only the flue lining separation between them.
Rectangular chimney flues with an aspect ratio less than 2 to 1 shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of not less than 1/10 of the fireplace opening.
Splices shall not be allowed within 12 inches (305 mm) of an opening. The width of joints between firebricks shall be not greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). The throat shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the fireplace opening. Where the chimney offset is supported by masonry below the offset in an approved manner, the maximum offset limitations shall not apply. Where venting only one appliance, two flues are permitted to adjoin each other in the same chimney with only the flue lining separation between them.
Proportions of materials for concrete shall be established to provide workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into forms and around reinforcement under conditions of placement to be employed, without segregation or excessive bleeding.
Reinforcement shall be secured in the proper location in the forms with tie wire or other bar support system to prevent displacement during the concrete placement operation.
Special Inspection in the Codes and Standards
For concrete cast in removable forms that will not be exposed to the earth or weather, and for concrete cast in stay-in-place forms, minimum cover shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm).
Vertical and horizontal wall reinforcement shall be the longest lengths practical. Construction joint reinforcement shall have a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) embedment on both sides of the joint. Where the height of the reduced thickness portion measured to the underside of the floor assembly or sill plate above is less than or equal to 24 inches (610 mm) and the reduction in thickness does not exceed 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical reinforcement is permitted to be based on the thicker portion of the wall.
Where hollow masonry units are solidly filled with concrete or grout, piers shall be permitted to have a nominal height not exceeding ten times the nominal thickness.
Hollow masonry piers shall be capped with 4 inches (102 mm) of solid masonry or concrete, a masonry cap block, or shall have cavities of the top course filled with concrete or grout.
Module Lecture Masonry Walls
Lecture Series on Building Materials and Construction by Dr. B. Bhattacharjee, Department of Civil Engineering,IIT Delhi.