Unreinforced Simpson Strong Epoxy Adhesive
Unprotected windows may break if struck by flying debris. Failure of aluminum, screened-in enclosures can occur. The load tables list values based upon results from the most recent testing and may not reflect those in current code reports. Owners need to know how to upgrade historic buildings to improve their chance of surviving a major earthquake. Rare antique or reproduction furnishings are often showcased in these historic houses. Northridge earthquake showed that some types of wall anchorage installed even after 1975 were not adequate to support the walls. Work can be done inside above the ceiling (see drawing right) or on the roof, at relatively low cost.
Seismic Neglect – Simpson Unreinforced Masonry
Well-built frame homes can experience damage to roof shingles, vinyl siding, soffit panels, and gutters. Newer mobile homes can also be destroyed. Unprotected windows will have a high chance of being broken by flying debris. Prepare your house to weather an earthquake. This information will help you plan and carry out a seismic upgrade while preserving the important features and character of your historic house.
Historic houses were constructed without the knowledge of modern seismic building codes and many materials are weaker than today’s equivalent. Including seismic upgrading as a part of other repair or rehab work, as was the case in these demonstration projects, will minimize total cost. With careful investigation, planning, and retrofit work, you can improve your personal safety and the seismic performance of your historic house. Solvents may damage surfaces to which they are applied. April) is like living in a swimming pool. In addition to cast-in tie wires, veneers and other elements are connected with a variety of embedded fasteners, including power-actuated pins (nails), screws and anchors.
Windborne debris damage will occur to nearly all unprotected windows and many protected windows. Most unreinforced masonry walls will fail leading to the collapse of buildings. Nearly all trees will be snapped or uprooted and power poles downed. An array of adhesive anchor solutions also exist for masonry. For attaching to hollow masonry and brick, mesh sleeves contain and extrude adhesive to form a mechanical key behind the face shell. Hilti generously contributed background information for this article. Extensive damage to roof covers, windows, and doors will occur.
Simpson Strong Tie ET HP22 Epoxy Adhesive for Concrete and
Nearly all trees will be snapped or uprooted and power poles downed. Large branches of trees will snap and shallow rooted trees can be toppled. Poorly constructed frame homes have a high chance of having their roof structures removed especially if they are not anchored properly. Large amounts of windborne debris will be lofted into the air. Steel frames in older industrial buildings can collapse. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Therefore, levels shown for tree, grass, and weed pollen are normalized to a national scale. Are there heavy roofing materials such as tile or slate? Is the mortar on the chimney deteriorated? Could hanging or tall light fixtures swing into walls or fall if they swing? Is the gas supplied through a rigid pipe? Has there been heavy, repeated shaking of the ground by heavy equipment? If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, your house may be at greater risk from an earthquake. Much of this seismic retrofit work could be executed by the experienced, do-it-yourself homeowner with the right tools and good building repair skills.
Add a new plywood roof deck, connections to walls, and chimney bracing. Install joist/wall seismic connectors, shear walls, etc. Can they be avoided in the seismic retrofit by opening the other side of the wall or ceiling?
If flooring is replaced, install structural plywood and nail similar to shear walls. All edges between plywood sheets should be blocked behind with axes between rafters. The top plate should also be anchored to the masonry wall (see anchor bolts). The strap connector is bolted to a 2″ diameter steel pipe which is connected to the roof structure with the pipe at an angle less than 45 degrees.
The large plate washers remain exposed on the exterior. Access to the joists must be gained on the interior, removing portions of either the floor or ceiling. Cost depends on the extent of repair, ease of access, strength of historic masonry, etc. All edges of the plywood must be blocked and the plywood is nailed heavily (about every six inches) around the perimeter and in the ‘”field” (along studs behind each sheet).
Carefully remove railings and decorative elements only if needed, otherwise, protect in place. Porch columns can also be secured in place without opening or rebuilding by attaching the column at both top and bottom with metal clips, bolts, or screws.
If the column is “punching through” the wood porch deck, disassembly and reinforcing rebuilding is needed. Other gas appliances may also need flexible supply lines. Post-earthquake fires often destroy as many buildings as the earthquake itself. Concealed or reproduction latches are available. Hanging objects (e.g., pictures, mirrors, lights) can be restrained with strong nylon fishing line. Owners of masonry homes can waive the coverage for brick and insure as a frame house, but damage to the brick will not be covered.
Evaluate your needs with your insurance agent. Check the structural condition of the house, protecting yourself from broken glass, dust, etc. Shore up the house if needed to prevent damage from aftershocks (see front cover). If an inspector determines the house is unsafe, do not occupy the building. Get a second opinion from a professional engineer or architect experienced with historic buildings.
What Is Unreinforced Masonry Building? What Does Unreinforced Masonry Building Mean?
What is UNREINFORCED MASONRY BUILDING? What does UNREINFORCED MASONRY BUILDING mean? UNREINFORCED …