Ram Elements Wall Minimum Separation Distance CHAPTER SEISMIC STRENGTHENING PROVISIONS
This chapter does not apply to the alteration of existing electrical, plumbing, mechanical or fire safety systems. In structural engineering, most problems can be modeled with one-dimensional line elements, or two-dimensional plate or shell elements, and result in reasonably accurate solutions.
Make sure you have the desired joint reinforcement type selected too. But, the program will only optimize a wall with horizontal reinforcement when it’s needed (otherwise it will be treated as an unreinforced wall).
Masonry Structure analysis and design in Bentley Systems RAM as per ACI 530.RAM Elements Masonry Wall Seismic Design – Ram Elements Masonry Wall Minimum Separation Distance
It is the process of reducing (simplifying) a problem with infinite degrees of freedom to a finite number of elements with unique material properties.
Reinforced masonry and reinforced concrete elements are not linearly elastic because once a concrete element cracks, steel reinforcement is engaged. Some programs offer multiple element modification factors including bending in each direction, torsion, shear, and axial deformations. An adjustment may mean modifying the elastic modulus of the element. The center area of the blocks are ignored when partial grouting is used. To convert this into the area weight of the wall you must multiple by the thickness of the block (i.e. Why doesn’t the module optimize a wall with any horizontal reinforcement? Why does stacked bond produce the same capacity as running bond?
RAM Elements Masonry Wall [FAQ
The user can also limit the range of bar sizes used. The program will extend or develop these bars as required. Element thought there was an additional out-of-plane support that really does not exist. We hope to fully implement the codes sometime next year. Lastly, consideration should be made for material properties. It is unreasonable to have differential movement between nodes that are closer together than the thickness of the masonry element. Some may wonder if it is worth this amount of effort for a masonry wall. Lateral analysis load distribution (through rigid or semi-rigid diaphragms) between masonry and other systems or materials, such as concrete or structural steel frames. Areas above openings are rationalized into an area that will be checked against lintel capacities. Lintel shear and bending capacities must also be evaluated. Therefore, the engineer is left to manually check the horizontal bending moment against an unreinforced masonry bending capacity. Some software programs may or may not be able to correctly define the finite element model. Supplementing with additional calculations may be needed. To review the forces in the element, a quick manual calculation should be within 20-25% of the anticipated forces in any particular element within a finite element model.
It is important to consider how those elements connect to the masonry. Should the beams (line elements) framing into the wall be modeled as pinned or fixed?
Are the shell/plate slab elements pinned or fixed to the masonry walls? All masonry that does not meet the minimum standards established by this chapter shall be removed and replaced with new materials, or alternatively, shall have its structural functions replaced with new materials and shall be anchored to supporting elements.
Veneer wythes shall not be included in the effective thickness used in calculating the height-to-thickness ratio and the shear capacity of the wall. An accurate record of all such tests and their locations in the building shall be recorded, and these results shall be submitted to the building department for approval as part of the structural analysis.
The shear strength of any wall class shall be no greater than that of the weakest wythe of that class. At the discretion of the building official, incidental pointing may be performed without special inspection. Five percent of all bolts that do not extend through the wall shall be subject to a direct-tension test, and an additional 20 percent shall be tested using a calibrated torque wrench.
Five percent of all bolts resisting tension forces shall be subject to a direct-tension test, and an additional 20 percent shall be tested using a calibrated torque wrench.
The resistance values of the existing anchors shall be the average of the tension tests of existing anchors having the same wall thickness and joist orientation.
Higher values may be justified only in conjunction with a geotechnical investigation. Any redundancy or overstrength factors contained in the building code may be taken as unity. Crosswalls shall extend the full story height between diaphragms. Within any 40 feet (12 192 mm) measured along the span of the diaphragm, the sum of the crosswall shear capacities shall be at least 30 percent of the diaphragm shear capacity of the strongest diaphragm at or above the level under consideration.
Existing crosswall connections to diaphragms need not be investigated as long as the crosswall extends to the framing of the diaphragms above and below. New crosswalls shall have the capacity to resist an overturning moment equal to the crosswall shear capacity times the story height. Collector forces may be resisted by new or existing elements. Region 2, height-to-thickness ratios for buildings with crosswalls may be used whether or not qualifying crosswalls are present. Region 3, height-to-thickness ratios for “all other buildings” shall be used whether or not qualifying crosswalls are present. Unreinforced masonry wall piers need not be analyzed for tension stress. Existing wall anchors, if used, must meet the requirements of this chapter or must be upgraded. Bolts transmitting shear forces shall have a maximum bolt spacing of 6 feet (1829 mm) and shall have nuts installed over malleable iron or plate washers when bearing on wood, and heavy-cut washers when bearing on steel.
The wall height may be reduced by bracing elements connected to the floor or roof. Bracing elements shall be detailed to minimize the horizontal displacement of the wall by the vertical displacement of the floor or roof. Parapet corrective work must be performed in conjunction with the installation of tension roof anchors. Only the outlines are shown monochromatic. Once it is done, you can keep using it or uninstall it and install the 64-bit version of the program. The condition in which this happens is with surface load polygons shaped like the one below. Two way deck is used, only two modules can give results. Currently, the surface loading applied to two way decks does not generate any skip loading cases. K factor for columns supporting 2-way slabs. Conversely, when there is negligible out of plane stiffness to the diaphragm, the moments in the walls would not be affected. Since this requires a finite element analysis of a meshed two way slab, it has the same limitations in the table above, i.e. This wiki documents the questions that were asked by the audience and provides detailed replies. Can you model a masonry infill panel between the steel framing to take lateral loads only? When dealing with unassociated masses to diaphragms, should you always associate them to the topmost diaphragm?
Can you explain the slide related to defining intermittent stories? Do you model differently if you have walls and steel frames in the same directions? There is no special consideration for the modeling of two different lateral framing systems in the same direction. Is there a table for the roof deck properties? What about the contribution of non-reinforced block walls to the lateral resistance?
Is the interoperability between the two softwares 2-way?
What happens to wind load generated when you have a small interior mezzanine?
Other – only for concrete walls. Problem corrected in version 15.04.00.00.
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