Historic Wall Construction Moisture Dynamics Masonry Fabric
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It does not cost the contractor any more money to remove another 1/4 inch of material during preparation and it makes for a better job.
Instead, we most often find these projects only skim coated with the harder material. The third step is to use a caulking cutter with a diamond sickle type blade to clean the top and bottom of the masonry units and create a square cut back to the original lime mortar.
Also consider choosing breathable mortar materials like lime putty or hydraulic lime blended with coarse aggregate particles – often the vary material that has turned to dust over the past 100 years.
Just match the old lime mortar and move onto the next project. It has done the hard work of absorbing more water than the brick over and over again and now needs replacement. The new lime mortar replacement mixture should match the old mortar and perform as the old mortar did – it to will turn to dust and fall out of the wall in the next hundred years, giving the next generation something to fix.
What we don’t talk about much is the “embodied water,” the water that remains in the walls at all times. The action of wicking is energized by the horsepower of smallness. The horsepower of smallness regarding the capillary action of water should be cause for concern, because architects and contractors are often focused on repairing large cracks in buildings while leaving the small ones untreated.
The small cracks, even the hairline cracks, are where the suction power is. While the joints may look like they are in need of repointing due to deterioration, it’s important to know why they deteriorated in the first place.
One of the challenges is understanding that a building can, and does, breathe though its mortar joints as well as its masonry units. The original building materials made for quick evaporation of the water on the surface of the walls and kept the inside dry, but this breathability does takes its toll on old lime mortar joints and they need to be repointed in high moisture areas every 75 to 100 years or so.
Instead of the mortar surfaces wearing, there is a new pattern of brick and stone decay. Tomorrow we will discuss how water enters a building. Either way, the mixtures were left to mature or rest for a time before use, due to the expansion of the lime particles during slaking.
Up until the turn of the last century portland cement was considered an additive, or “minor ingredient” to help accelerate mortar set time. It’s best to know what you need first – then go out and find a supplier that can meet that need. What tends to happen in a historic masonry wall is moisture infiltrates by various ways; rising damp, poor roof/parapet/flashing details; driving rain; capillary action through cracks among other ways.
Hard, high strength mortar prevents water from escaping thus trapping it inside the wall potentially causing damage to the masonry units of brick and stone as well as terra cotta over the course of time.
The entire kiln was cooled down another few days until the materials were discharged from the bottom. Portland cement of 1871 was a different material from that of 1920 which, in turn, is totally different from portland cement today. The training programs allow owners and architects to identify qualified masons based upon delivering an acceptable test panel of each specified treatment. These walls had functioned effectively for most of the previous 100 years, so the envelope repair tasks generally were to locate problems, determine the extent of the deterioration, and restore original conditions.
Ohio with multiple surfaces exposed by the intricate carving fared better than the less durable stone set in the plane of the wall. Various viscosities of two-part epoxy were selected based on crack width and depth to be injected into the crack using a bulk caulking gun, working up the crack, after sealing the surface with silicone sealant and placing plastic injection ports at uniform spacing the length of the crack.
Some of the larger cracks required retrofitting up to 5/8-in. These reinforcing pins were installed without removing the stone by drilling through the stone face at a 90- or 60-degree angle across the crack into the stone.
If you need to repoint your historic masonry house or building, use a mortar mix that is equal to or softer than your historic mortar.
As a result, three of the building’s original clay masonry walls (front and sides) were deemed salvageable. Masonry pre-cast columns, capitols and cast stone parapet cartouche were cleaned, patched and injected with epoxy as necessary to properly repair and preserve to their original condition.
The old asphalt and wood frame roof was replaced with a metal frame, single-ply roof membrane with insulation. Tie-ins with the standing, existing walls were created for additional stability. Interiors are painted in bold yellows, greens and oranges, with rustic-colored, stained polished concrete flooring. In other areas, ceilings are at 16 feet, open to the structural supports, which are painted white. In this investigation, 17 test specimens were constructed with a segmental arch shape, using methods typical of those employed for many historic bridges, involving the use of timber centering formwork as a temporary support.
As part of a larger previous study, described in detail in , six full-scale masonry beams were constructed and subject to bending tests. Considering purely the self-weight of such a control beam, the stress on the unreinforced beam’s tension side would be much higher than the masonry tensile strength.
The bending load was applied to the beams using concrete cubes and/or cement bags. Young modulus were derived using the dry glass fiber cross sectional area value (3.8 mm2). These acids can break down the bond between the glass reinforcing and the resin. However, the emerging line seems quite clear and a reduction of the tensile strength has been always recorded for treated specimens. Figure 14 also report a linear trend line: for both specimen and treatment types the slopes of the trend lines are negative (varying between −3.31 and −9.67).
Scanning electron micrographs also display micro-cracking on the fibers due to ageing in deionized water, degradation of the epoxy matrix and evidence of fibers pull out.
It can be noted that the resin does not protect the lateral surface of the glass filaments and this is the main cause of the degradation of the mechanical characteristics of the fibers.
Factors affecting the mechanical behavior. Modulus, strength and interfacial bond strength with concrete.
Moisture dynamics in the masonry fabric of historic buildings subjected
Solutions that used foam insulation performed better than those with batt insulation. Testing of the existing materials and specific data on proposed products should be used to refine this analysis and determine extent of mold growth risk.
However, the variation in the volumetric ratio of binder: aggregate, the qualityof the lime and the type of lime (hydraulic or aerial) does have considerable effect on themechanical properties of the mortar.
Bonding pattern is well organized: stone block are perfectly cut with different heights. In many areas, where the stone was abundant,… Being in situ test a semi-destructive methods, not always viable, a numerical estimate of the mechanical parameters of the walls can be made on the basis of a qualitative criteria evaluation.
A method for the analysis and classification of historic masonry. In many areas, where the stone was abundant, stone became the material of choice for all constructions. The experimental tests allowed the analysis of the behavior of the multi-leaf panels.
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